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World Languages

Flyhigh

Teaching World Languages teachers about posterous.

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Teaching early years teachers the dead simplest way to start blogging. 😉

Darren Kuropatwa

Winnipeg, MB, Canada
Email: dkuropatwa@gmail.com

Skype: dkuropatwa
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Instructional Design Principles

SOME DEFINITIONS
“Essential Material”
refers to words and pictures needed to achieve the instructional objective such as understanding how a system works.

“Extraneous Material” refers to words and pictures that are not relevant to achieving the instructional objective such as interesting stories or pictures.

“Extraneous Overload” occurs when essential cognitive processing (required to understand the essential material in a multimedia message) and extraneous cognitive processing (required to process extraneous material or to overcome confusing layout in a multimedia message) exceeds the learner’s cognitive capacity.

FIVE THEORY-BASED INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN TECHNIQUES
intended to reduce extraneous overload

The Coherence Principle
People learn more deeply from a multimedia message when extraneous material is excluded rather than included.

The Signaling Principle
People learn more deeply from a multimedia message when cues are added that highlight the organization of the essential material.

The Redundancy Principle
People learn more deeply from graphics and narration than from graphics, narration, and on-screen text.

The Spatial Contiguity Principle
People learn more deeply from a multimedia message when corresponding words and pictures are presented near rather than far from each other on the page or screen.

The Temporal Contiguity Principle
People learn more deeply from a multimedia message when corresponding animation and narration are presented simultaneously rather than successively.

Source: The Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning (Chapter 12, Richard E. Mayer)

EIGHT PRINCIPLES
Another formulation as a set of eight principles based on the work of Richard Mayer and Roxanne Moreno:

1. Multimedia Principle: Retention is improved through words and pictures rather than through words alone.

2. Spatial Contiguity Principle: Students learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented near each other rather than far from each other on the page or screen.

3.Temporal Contiguity Principle: Students learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented simultaneously rather than successively.

4. Coherence Principle: Students learn better when extraneous words, pictures, and sounds are excluded rather than included.

5. Modality Principle: Students learn better from animation and narration than from animation and on-screen text.

6. Redundancy Principle: Students learn better when information is not represented in more than one modality – redundancy interferes with learning.

7a. Individual Differences Principle: Design effects are higher for low-knowledge learners than for high-knowledge learners.
7b. Individual Differences Principle: Design effects are higher for high-spatial learners rather than for low-spatial learners.

8. Direct Manipulation Principle: As the complexity of the materials increase, the impact of direct manipulation of the learning materials (animation, pacing) on transfer also increases

Source: http://www.cisco.com/web/strategy/docs/education/Multimodal-Learning-Through-Media.pdf

(It seems to me that the Multimedia Principle and the Redundancy Principle contradict each other.)